This section describes HPA management with kubectl. This document has instructions for how to:

  • Create an HPA
  • Get information on HPAs
  • Delete an HPA
  • Configure your HPAs to scale with CPU or memory utilization
  • Configure your HPAs to scale using custom metrics, if you use a third-party tool such as Prometheus for metrics

Note For Rancher v2.3.x

In Rancher v2.3.x, you can create, view, and delete HPAs from the Rancher UI. You can also configure them to scale based on CPU or memory usage from the Rancher UI. For more information, refer to Managing HPAs with the Rancher UI. For scaling HPAs based on other metrics than CPU or memory, you still need kubectl.

Note For Rancher Prior to v2.0.7

Clusters created with older versions of Rancher don’t automatically have all the requirements to create an HPA. To install an HPA on these clusters, refer to Manual HPA Installation for Clusters Created Before Rancher v2.0.7.

Basic kubectl Command for Managing HPAs

If you have an HPA manifest file, you can create, manage, and delete HPAs using kubectl:

  • Creating HPA

    • With manifest: kubectl create -f <HPA_MANIFEST>

    • Without manifest (Just support CPU): kubectl autoscale deployment hello-world --min=2 --max=5 --cpu-percent=50

  • Getting HPA info

    • Basic: kubectl get hpa hello-world

    • Detailed description: kubectl describe hpa hello-world

  • Deleting HPA

    • kubectl delete hpa hello-world
HPA Manifest Definition Example

The HPA manifest is the config file used for managing an HPA with kubectl.

The following snippet demonstrates use of different directives in an HPA manifest. See the list below the sample to understand the purpose of each directive.

apiVersion: autoscaling/v2beta1
kind: HorizontalPodAutoscaler
metadata:
  name: hello-world
spec:
  scaleTargetRef:
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    kind: Deployment
    name: hello-world
  minReplicas: 1
  maxReplicas: 10
  metrics:
  - type: Resource
    resource:
      name: cpu
      targetAverageUtilization: 50
  - type: Resource
    resource:
      name: memory
      targetAverageValue: 100Mi
Directive Description
apiVersion: autoscaling/v2beta1 The version of the Kubernetes autoscaling API group in use. This example manifest uses the beta version, so scaling by CPU and memory is enabled.
name: hello-world Indicates that HPA is performing autoscaling for the hello-word deployment.
minReplicas: 1 Indicates that the minimum number of replicas running can’t go below 1.
maxReplicas: 10 Indicates the maximum number of replicas in the deployment can’t go above 10.
targetAverageUtilization: 50 Indicates the deployment will scale pods up when the average running pod uses more than 50% of its requested CPU.
targetAverageValue: 100Mi Indicates the deployment will scale pods up when the average running pod uses more that 100Mi of memory.


Configuring HPA to Scale Using Resource Metrics (CPU and Memory)

Clusters created in Rancher v2.0.7 and higher have all the requirements needed (metrics-server and Kubernetes cluster configuration) to use Horizontal Pod Autoscaler. Run the following commands to check if metrics are available in your installation:

$ kubectl top nodes
NAME                              CPU(cores)   CPU%      MEMORY(bytes)   MEMORY%
node-controlplane   196m         9%        1623Mi          42%
node-etcd           80m          4%        1090Mi          28%
node-worker         64m          3%        1146Mi          29%
$ kubectl -n kube-system top pods
NAME                                   CPU(cores)   MEMORY(bytes)
canal-pgldr                            18m          46Mi
canal-vhkgr                            20m          45Mi
canal-x5q5v                            17m          37Mi
canal-xknnz                            20m          37Mi
kube-dns-7588d5b5f5-298j2              0m           22Mi
kube-dns-autoscaler-5db9bbb766-t24hw   0m           5Mi
metrics-server-97bc649d5-jxrlt         0m           12Mi
$ kubectl -n kube-system logs -l k8s-app=metrics-server
I1002 12:55:32.172841       1 heapster.go:71] /metrics-server --source=kubernetes.summary_api:https://kubernetes.default.svc?kubeletHttps=true&kubeletPort=10250&useServiceAccount=true&insecure=true
I1002 12:55:32.172994       1 heapster.go:72] Metrics Server version v0.2.1
I1002 12:55:32.173378       1 configs.go:61] Using Kubernetes client with master "https://kubernetes.default.svc" and version
I1002 12:55:32.173401       1 configs.go:62] Using kubelet port 10250
I1002 12:55:32.173946       1 heapster.go:128] Starting with Metric Sink
I1002 12:55:32.592703       1 serving.go:308] Generated self-signed cert (apiserver.local.config/certificates/apiserver.crt, apiserver.local.config/certificates/apiserver.key)
I1002 12:55:32.925630       1 heapster.go:101] Starting Heapster API server...
[restful] 2018/10/02 12:55:32 log.go:33: [restful/swagger] listing is available at https:///swaggerapi
[restful] 2018/10/02 12:55:32 log.go:33: [restful/swagger] https:///swaggerui/ is mapped to folder /swagger-ui/
I1002 12:55:32.928597       1 serve.go:85] Serving securely on 0.0.0.0:443

If you have created your cluster in Rancher v2.0.6 or before, please refer to Manual installation

Configuring HPA to Scale Using Custom Metrics with Prometheus

You can configure HPA to autoscale based on custom metrics provided by third-party software. The most common use case for autoscaling using third-party software is based on application-level metrics (i.e., HTTP requests per second). HPA uses the custom.metrics.k8s.io API to consume these metrics. This API is enabled by deploying a custom metrics adapter for the metrics collection solution.

For this example, we are going to use Prometheus. We are beginning with the following assumptions:

  • Prometheus is deployed in the cluster.
  • Prometheus is configured correctly and collecting proper metrics from pods, nodes, namespaces, etc.
  • Prometheus is exposed at the following URL and port: http://prometheus.mycompany.io:80

Prometheus is available for deployment in the Rancher v2.0 catalog. Deploy it from Rancher catalog if it isn’t already running in your cluster.

For HPA to use custom metrics from Prometheus, package k8s-prometheus-adapter is required in the kube-system namespace of your cluster. To install k8s-prometheus-adapter, we are using the Helm chart available at banzai-charts.

  1. Initialize Helm in your cluster.

    # kubectl -n kube-system create serviceaccount tiller
    kubectl create clusterrolebinding tiller --clusterrole cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:tiller
    helm init --service-account tiller
    
  2. Clone the banzai-charts repo from GitHub:

    # git clone https://github.com/banzaicloud/banzai-charts
    
  3. Install the prometheus-adapter chart, specifying the Prometheus URL and port number.

    # helm install --name prometheus-adapter banzai-charts/prometheus-adapter --set prometheus.url="http://prometheus.mycompany.io",prometheus.port="80" --namespace kube-system
    
  4. Check that prometheus-adapter is running properly. Check the service pod and logs in the kube-system namespace.

    1. Check that the service pod is Running. Enter the following command.

      # kubectl get pods -n kube-system
      

      From the resulting output, look for a status of Running.

      NAME                                  READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      ...
      prometheus-adapter-prometheus-adapter-568674d97f-hbzfx   1/1       Running   0          7h
      ...
      
    2. Check the service logs to make sure the service is running correctly by entering the command that follows.

      # kubectl logs prometheus-adapter-prometheus-adapter-568674d97f-hbzfx -n kube-system
      

      Then review the log output to confirm the service is running.

      ...
      I0724 10:18:45.696679       1 round_trippers.go:436] GET https://10.43.0.1:443/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods?labelSelector=app%3Dhello-world 200 OK in 2 milliseconds
      I0724 10:18:45.696695       1 round_trippers.go:442] Response Headers:
      I0724 10:18:45.696699       1 round_trippers.go:445]     Date: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 10:18:45 GMT
      I0724 10:18:45.696703       1 round_trippers.go:445]     Content-Type: application/json
      I0724 10:18:45.696706       1 round_trippers.go:445]     Content-Length: 2581
      I0724 10:18:45.696766       1 request.go:836] Response Body: {"kind":"PodList","apiVersion":"v1","metadata":{"selfLink":"/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods","resourceVersion":"6237"},"items":[{"metadata":{"name":"hello-world-54764dfbf8-q6l82","generateName":"hello-world-54764dfbf8-","namespace":"default","selfLink":"/api/v1/namespaces/default/pods/hello-world-54764dfbf8-q6l82","uid":"484cb929-8f29-11e8-99d2-067cac34e79c","resourceVersion":"4066","creationTimestamp":"2018-07-24T10:06:50Z","labels":{"app":"hello-world","pod-template-hash":"1032089694"},"annotations":{"cni.projectcalico.org/podIP":"10.42.0.7/32"},"ownerReferences":[{"apiVersion":"extensions/v1beta1","kind":"ReplicaSet","name":"hello-world-54764dfbf8","uid":"4849b9b1-8f29-11e8-99d2-067cac34e79c","controller":true,"blockOwnerDeletion":true}]},"spec":{"volumes":[{"name":"default-token-ncvts","secret":{"secretName":"default-token-ncvts","defaultMode":420}}],"containers":[{"name":"hello-world","image":"rancher/hello-world","ports":[{"containerPort":80,"protocol":"TCP"}],"resources":{"requests":{"cpu":"500m","memory":"64Mi"}},"volumeMounts":[{"name":"default-token-ncvts","readOnly":true,"mountPath":"/var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount"}],"terminationMessagePath":"/dev/termination-log","terminationMessagePolicy":"File","imagePullPolicy":"Always"}],"restartPolicy":"Always","terminationGracePeriodSeconds":30,"dnsPolicy":"ClusterFirst","serviceAccountName":"default","serviceAccount":"default","nodeName":"34.220.18.140","securityContext":{},"schedulerName":"default-scheduler","tolerations":[{"key":"node.kubernetes.io/not-ready","operator":"Exists","effect":"NoExecute","tolerationSeconds":300},{"key":"node.kubernetes.io/unreachable","operator":"Exists","effect":"NoExecute","tolerationSeconds":300}]},"status":{"phase":"Running","conditions":[{"type":"Initialized","status":"True","lastProbeTime":null,"lastTransitionTime":"2018-07-24T10:06:50Z"},{"type":"Ready","status":"True","lastProbeTime":null,"lastTransitionTime":"2018-07-24T10:06:54Z"},{"type":"PodScheduled","status":"True","lastProbeTime":null,"lastTransitionTime":"2018-07-24T10:06:50Z"}],"hostIP":"34.220.18.140","podIP":"10.42.0.7","startTime":"2018-07-24T10:06:50Z","containerStatuses":[{"name":"hello-world","state":{"running":{"startedAt":"2018-07-24T10:06:54Z"}},"lastState":{},"ready":true,"restartCount":0,"image":"rancher/hello-world:latest","imageID":"docker-pullable://rancher/hello-world@sha256:4b1559cb4b57ca36fa2b313a3c7dde774801aa3a2047930d94e11a45168bc053","containerID":"docker://cce4df5fc0408f03d4adf82c90de222f64c302bf7a04be1c82d584ec31530773"}],"qosClass":"Burstable"}}]}
      I0724 10:18:45.699525       1 api.go:74] GET http://prometheus-server.prometheus.34.220.18.140.xip.io/api/v1/query?query=sum%28rate%28container_fs_read_seconds_total%7Bpod_name%3D%22hello-world-54764dfbf8-q6l82%22%2Ccontainer_name%21%3D%22POD%22%2Cnamespace%3D%22default%22%7D%5B5m%5D%29%29+by+%28pod_name%29&time=1532427525.697 200 OK
      I0724 10:18:45.699620       1 api.go:93] Response Body: {"status":"success","data":{"resultType":"vector","result":[{"metric":{"pod_name":"hello-world-54764dfbf8-q6l82"},"value":[1532427525.697,"0"]}]}}
      I0724 10:18:45.699939       1 wrap.go:42] GET /apis/custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1/namespaces/default/pods/%2A/fs_read?labelSelector=app%3Dhello-world: (12.431262ms) 200 [[kube-controller-manager/v1.10.1 (linux/amd64) kubernetes/d4ab475/system:serviceaccount:kube-system:horizontal-pod-autoscaler] 10.42.0.0:24268]
      I0724 10:18:51.727845       1 request.go:836] Request Body: {"kind":"SubjectAccessReview","apiVersion":"authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1","metadata":{"creationTimestamp":null},"spec":{"nonResourceAttributes":{"path":"/","verb":"get"},"user":"system:anonymous","group":["system:unauthenticated"]},"status":{"allowed":false}}
      ...
      

  5. Check that the metrics API is accessible from kubectl.

    • If you are accessing the cluster directly, enter your Server URL in the kubectl config in the following format: https://<Kubernetes_URL>:6443.

      # kubectl get --raw /apis/custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1
      

      If the API is accessible, you should receive output that’s similar to what follows.

      {"kind":"APIResourceList","apiVersion":"v1","groupVersion":"custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1","resources":[{"name":"pods/fs_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_rss","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_period","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_throttled","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_time","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_read","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_sector_writes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_user","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/last_seen","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/tasks_state","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_quota","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/start_time_seconds","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_write","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_cache","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_periods","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_throttled_periods","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads_merged","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_working_set_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/network_udp_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_inodes_free","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_inodes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_time_weighted","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_failures","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_swap","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_shares","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_swap_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_current","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_failcnt","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes_merged","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/network_tcp_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_max_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_reservation_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_load_average_10s","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_system","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_sector_reads","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]}]}
      

    • If you are accessing the cluster through Rancher, enter your Server URL in the kubectl config in the following format: https://<RANCHER_URL>/k8s/clusters/<CLUSTER_ID>. Add the suffix /k8s/clusters/<CLUSTER_ID> to API path.

      # kubectl get --raw /k8s/clusters/<CLUSTER_ID>/apis/custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1
      

      If the API is accessible, you should receive output that’s similar to what follows.

      {"kind":"APIResourceList","apiVersion":"v1","groupVersion":"custom.metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1","resources":[{"name":"pods/fs_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_rss","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_period","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_throttled","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_time","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_read","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_sector_writes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_user","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/last_seen","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/tasks_state","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_quota","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/start_time_seconds","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_write","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_cache","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_periods","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_cfs_throttled_periods","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads_merged","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_working_set_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/network_udp_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_inodes_free","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_inodes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_time_weighted","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_failures","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_swap","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_cpu_shares","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_swap_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_io_current","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_failcnt","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_writes_merged","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/network_tcp_usage","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/memory_max_usage_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/spec_memory_reservation_limit_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_load_average_10s","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/cpu_system","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_reads_bytes","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]},{"name":"pods/fs_sector_reads","singularName":"","namespaced":true,"kind":"MetricValueList","verbs":["get"]}]}