Continental Innovates with Rancher and Kubernetes
Update (June 2018): Engineer Alena Prokharchyk revisited this topic and showed useful and easy ways to load balance with Kubernetes in a recent blog post.
Kubernetes is the container orchestration system of choice for many
enterprise deployments. That’s a tribute to its reliability,
flexibility, and broad range of features. In this post, we’re going to
take a closer look at how Kubernetes handles a very common and very
necessary job: load balancing. Load balancing is a relatively
straightforward task in many non-container environments (i.e., balancing
between servers), but it involves a bit of special handling when it
comes to containers.
To understand Kubernetes load balancing, you first have to understand
how Kubernetes organizes containers. Since containers typically perform
specific services or sets of services, it makes sense to look at them in
terms of the services they provide, rather than individual instances of
a service (i.e., a single container). In essence, this is what
In Kubernetes, the pod serves as a kind of basic, functional unit. A pod
is a set of containers, along with their shared volumes. The containers
are generally closely related in terms of function and services
Pods that have the same set of functions are abstracted into sets,
called services. It is these services which the client of a
Kubernetes-based application accesses; the service stands in for the
individual pods, which in turn manage access to the containers that make
them up, leaving the client insulated from the containers themselves.
From overlay networking and SSL to ingress controllers and network security policies, we've seen many users get hung up on Kubernetes networking challenges. In this video recording, we dive into Kubernetes networking, and discuss best practices for a wide variety of deployment options.
Now, let’s take a look at some of the gory details. Pods are routinely
created and destroyed by Kubernetes, and are not designed to be
persistent entities. Every pod has its own IP address (localhost-based),
UID, and port; new pods, whether they are duplicates of current or
previous pods, are assigned new UIDs and IP addresses. Within each pod,
communication between containers is possible, but direct communication
with containers in different pods is not possible.
Kubernetes uses its own built-in tools to manage communication with
individual pods. This means that under ordinary circumstances, it is
sufficient to rely on Kubernetes to keep track of pods internally,
without worrying about the creation, deletion, or replication of
individual pods. There may be times, however, when it is necessary for
at least some internal elements of an application managed by Kubernetes
to be visible to the underlying network. When this happens, the method
of exposure must take into account the lack of persistent IP addresses.
In many respects, Kubernetes can be seen as a pod-management system as
much as a container-management system; much of its infrastructure deals
with containers at the pod level, rather than at the container level. In
terms of internal Kubernetes management, the level of organization above
the pod is the node, a virtual machine which serves as the deployment
environment for the pods, and which contains resources for managing and
communicating with them. Nodes can handle the creation, destruction, and
replacement/redeployment of pods internally. Nodes themselves can also
be created, destroyed, and redeployed. At the node and pod levels,
functions such as creation, destruction, redeployment, use, and scaling
are handled by internal processes called controllers.
That’s how Kubernetes handles containers and pods at the management
level. But as we mentioned above, it also abstracts functionally
related/identical pods into services, and it is at the service level
that external clients and other elements of the application interact
with pods. Services have IP addresses (used internally by Kubernetes)
which are relatively stable. When a program element needs to make use of
the functions abstracted by the service, it makes a request to the
service, rather than an individual pod. The service then acts as a
dispatcher, assigning a pod to handle the request.
If by now, you’re thinking, \“Hey, shouldn’t load balancing happen at
the dispatching level?\“— You’re right. A service in Kubernetes is a
bit like a heavy-equipment pool, sending functionally identical machines
into the field as needed. And as part of the dispatching process, it
needs to manage availability and prevent resource bottlenecks.
The most basic type of load balancing in Kubernetes is actually load
distribution, which is easy to implement at the dispatch level.
Kubernetes uses two methods of load distribution, both of them operating
through a feature called kube-proxy, which manages the virtual IPs used
The default mode for kube-proxy is called iptables, which allows fairly
sophisticated rule-based IP management. The native method for load
distribution in iptables mode is random selection— an incoming request
goes to a randomly chosen pod within a service. The older (and former
default) kube-proxy mode is userspace, which uses round-robin load
distribution, allocating the next available pod on an IP list, then
rotating (or otherwise permuting) the list.
As we mentioned above, however, neither of these methods is really load
balancing. For true load balancing, the most popular, and in many ways,
the most flexible method is Ingress, which operates by means of a
controller in a specialized Kubernetes pod. The controller includes an
Ingress resource—a set of rules governing traffic—and a daemon which
applies those rules. The controller has its own built-in features for
load balancing, with some reasonably sophisticated capabilities. You can
also include more complex load-balancing rules in an Ingress resource,
allowing you to take into account load-balancing features and
requirements for specific systems or vendors.
As an alternative to Ingress, you can also use a service of the
LoadBalancer type, which uses a cloud service-based, external load
balancer. LoadBalancer can only be used with specific cloud service
providers, such as AWS, Azure, OpenStack, CloudStack, and Google Compute
Engine, and the capabilities of the balancer are provider-dependent.
Other load-balancing methods may be available from service providers, as
well as third parties.
Currently, however, Ingress is the load-balancing method of choice.
Since it is essentially internal to Kubernetes, operating as a pod-based
controller, it has relatively unencumbered access to Kubernetes
functionality (unlike external load balancers, some of which may not
have good access at the pod level). The configurable rules contained in
an Ingress resource allow very detailed and highly granular load
balancing, which can be customized to suit both the functional
requirements of the application and the conditions under which it