You can run Docker containers on Windows as well as Linux. Although, in many ways, Docker works similarly on these operating systems, there are some differences. Below, I walk through the steps of installing and running Docker on Windows, and point out how they are similar to and different from running Docker on Linux.
Installing Docker on Windows and Linux
Let’s start with installation. The Docker installation process is different on both operating systems. To install Docker on Windows, just download the application and install it as you would any Windows application. You get a user-friendly installation wizard: To install Docker on Linux, in contrast, you can either grab the Docker package from your distribution’s package manager (yum, dnf, or something similar), or install directly from Docker’s site with the command:
sudo sh -c "wget -qO- https://get.docker.io/gpg | apt-key add -"
Docker Under the Hood: Differences Between Windows and Linux
The Docker method of installation is just one difference between Windows and Linux. When you install Docker on Linux, you install only the Docker Engine and management tools. You don’t need to create a virtual machine or virtual networks, because your containers will handle the setup for you. Things are different on Windows. At the time of installation, Docker creates a Linux-based virtual machine called MobyLinuxVM, which is based on Alpine Linux. The Docker application connects to this machine, so that you can create your container with the necessary apparatus for operation. The Docker installation also configures a subnet for the virtual machine to communicate with the local network and NAT for your containers to use in the application. All of these steps occur behind the scenes and, as the user, you don’t really have to worry about them. Still, the fact that Docker on Windows runs a virtual machine in the background is another major difference between Docker on Windows and Docker on Linux.
Once you install Docker, the commands are the same on both Linux and Windows. You only have to learn one set of tools, no matter which operating system you run. The only difference between Windows and Linux when running Docker commands is where you run them. On Linux, you can use the terminal emulator of your choice. On Windows, use the PowerShell CLI. Below are examples of running Docker in PowerShell on Windows. The first screenshot displays information about the system, while the second shows some containers running on Windows.
Windows vs. Linux: Which is Better for Docker?
Personally, I find it easier to work with Docker from Linux than from Windows. Even though there is no functional difference between Docker on Windows and Linux environments, the installation process on Linux is a bit faster (an apt-get install is quicker than installing a Windows package), and the shell is easier to access on Linux. That said, this is just my personal preference. From a technical standpoint, there is no real difference between using Docker on Windows and Linux. You can achieve the same things with Docker on both platforms. I don’t think you can say that either Windows or Linux is “better” for hosting Docker.
The fact that no operating system is better than another for Docker is what makes Docker so great. No matter where Docker runs (despite some differences in configuration and what goes on in the background), the Docker user experience is always the same. A docker run -d -p 80:80 nginx command spins up an NGINX container, no matter which operating system you are working from, which particular shell you’re using, whether your Docker environment runs in the cloud or on-premises, or whether it’s sunny or rainy outside. This consistency is what makes Docker so reliable and pleasant to work with. It saves you from the configuration hell and environment unpredictability that are part and parcel of working with virtual machines and other older forms of infrastructure.